The U.S. Pledge of Allegiance is an oath of allegiance written by Christian socialist minister Francis Bellamy in August 1892. It was meant to paired with a salute.
Political Science is the science of politics, or the science of the nation-state. It is the art of diplomacy, the study of ideas, ideologies, and influence, the science of strategy, economics, and rhetoric, and more. Perhaps political science is best summed up by Aristotle in his discussing of man’s role in creating the ideal nation-city-state:
“Political science aims at what is the highest of all goods achievable by action…. though it is worth while to attain the end [AKA happiness/arete/”the greatest good”/”the highest good”] merely for one man, it is finer and more godlike to attain it for a nation or for city-states. These, then, are the ends at which our inquiry aims, since it is political science, in one sense of that term.” – Aristotle on the meaning of life, virtue, morals, ethics, and the city-state, Nicomachean Ethics 350 BC
Most political positions can be described using a limited set of political terms related to classical and social liberalism and conservatism.
Social Conservatism is the ideology of social hierarchy and tradition that mixes liberal and conservative views. It comes in political and economic forms.
Classical Conservatism is the ideology of authority, hierarchy, order, and tradition (like classical aristocracy). It comes in political and economic forms.
Social liberalism is the ideology of collective liberties and rights that favors social welfare and justice. It comes in a political and economic form.
Classical liberalism is the ideology of liberties, rights, individualism, reason, and tolerance that comes in a political and economic form.
Neoliberalism is an economically-minded evolution of classical liberalism focused on deregulation, trade, and the private market. It is a “middle way” or “third way” between liberalism and conservatism.
We explain Marx’s conflict theory and other conflict theories to show how tension between social, political, material, and other forces manifest.
We define terms related to “the society of the spectacle” like commodity fetishism, consumerism, “proletarianization,” and alienation.