The major branches of philosophy can be denoted as: metaphysics (what is), epistemology (what we can know), logic and reason, ethics and morality, and aesthetics (beauty and art).
Logic is a branch of philosophy that deals with reasoning. Logic is used in mathematics, computing, philosophy, culture, and more. This section covers all formal and informal logic and all sub-sets of logic.
According to physics, if a tree falls and no one is around to hear it, it still makes a sound. Sound is a mechanical wave of pressure and displacement through a medium such as air or water. We don’t have to perceive a sound to know the laws of physics are in play.
Past results of random independent events, like a coin flip, don’t affect future results. The mistaken belief that past results affect future results is known as “the Gambler’s Fallacy” (AKA the Fallacy of the Maturity of Chances, or the Monte Carlo Fallacy).