Thinking is a mental process which allows humans to model the world, philosophy is the attempt to understand the world using logic and reason. The world being both the external and the internal, and both the knowable and unknowable.

For an overview of philosophy see our branches of philosophy page, for an introduction to philosophy check out Reason at Work (Amazon). Philosophy includes everything from economic and political philosophies, to the philosophies of emotions and mind, to cosmological and other other metaphysical questions, to the nature of god and religion, to the very nature of what we can know. Given that every subject has a science and philosophy (with the two often merging, such is the case in theoretical physics or mathematics) we have to be careful not to undervalue the practical aspects of this non-science.


The Difference Between Fact and Opinion

Facts are things that are the case for sure, they are stated plainly and without bias. Opinions meanwhile inject subjectivity and bias. Since most content in any form contains at least some subjectivity and bias, it is rare to find pure facts and common to find opinion.

Whatever is the Case, is the Case Fact

Whatever is the case, is the case. That is to say, whatever is true is true within a system, is true within that system (for example, whatever is the case in reality, is the case in reality; or, whatever is true in mathematics, is true in mathematics).

Potentially, Everything is Light Fact

Nikola Tesla was said to have said “everything is light.” That is potentially correct. In theory, the universe could be explained by electromagnetic energy.

Analysis and Synthesis Explained

In simple terms, analysis examines a system by dividing a whole into its parts, and synthesis examines a system by combining and comparing parts.

Inductive Reasoning Explained

We explain inductive reasoning, a bottom-up reasoning method that reasons by consistency, comparing particulars and probabilities to find likely truths.

What is a Truth-Value?

A truth-value is a label that is given to a statement (a proposition) that denotes the relation of the statement to truth.

You Can’t Prove a Negative Myth

The saying “you can’t prove a negative” isn’t accurate. Proving negatives is a foundational aspect of logic (ex. the law of contradiction).