<p>Thinking is a mental process which allows humans to model the world, philosophy is the attempt to understand the world using logic and reason. The world being both the external and the internal, and both the knowable and unknowable.</p>
<p>For an overview of philosophy see <a href="http://factmyth.com/the-branches-of-philosophy-overview/">our branches of philosophy page</a>, for an introduction to philosophy check out <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Reason-Work-Introductory-Readings-Philosophy/dp/015502096X" target="_blank"><em>Reason at Work</em> (Amazon)</a>. Philosophy includes everything from economic and political philosophies, to the philosophies of emotions and mind, to cosmological and other other metaphysical questions, to the nature of god and religion, to the very nature of what we can know. Given that every subject has a science and philosophy (with the two often merging, such is the case in theoretical physics or mathematics) we have to be careful not to undervalue the practical aspects of this non-science.</p>

The Greeks Founded the Basis of Utilitarianism and Consequentialism Fact

Although we can consider Jeremy Bentham the founder of modern Utilitarianism, and his successor John Stuart Mill the one who popularized it, early Greek philosophers like Aristotle, Aristippus and Epicurus presented the original Utilitarian / Consequentialist / Greatest Happiness theories.

What is Reason?

Reason is the application of “pure logic”, empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).

Re-Defining Social Capitalism

Social Capitalism can be defined as a socially minded form of capitalism, where the goal is doing social good, rather than just the accumulation of capital.

What is Liberalism?

Liberalism is the political ideology of liberty and equality. Classical liberalism focuses on individual liberty, and modern social liberalism focuses on social equality.

John Locke is the Father of Liberalism Fact

John Locke can be considered the father of liberalism. His theories on life, liberty, property, consent, and the social contract form the foundation of classical liberalism.

Civil Religion

We explain Civil Religion (the national iconography, ritual, and symbolism of a state) by looking at American Civil Religion (like the national anthem, Lady Liberty, and other Americana), at past Civil Religions (like Athena in Athens), and at Rousseau’s original concept of Civic Religion.