Logic is a branch of philosophy that deals with reasoning. Logic is used in mathematics, computing, philosophy, culture, and more. This section covers all formal and informal logic and all sub-sets of logic.

## If a Tree Falls in a Forest and No One Can Hear it, it Makes a Sound

According to physics, if a tree falls and no one is around to hear it, it still makes a sound. Sound is a mechanical wave of pressure and displacement through a medium such as air or water. We don’t have to perceive a sound to know the laws of physics are in play.

## A System is a Set of Properties

A system is any “bound”, finite, set of physical and/or conceptual properties (elements) such as physical objects, rules, or space time coordinates.

## A Small Part of a Curved Surface Will Look “Flat”

If you look at a curved surface from close up it will look “flat”, if you change your perspective and “zoom out” it will look “round”.

## Infinity is a Number

Infinity (∞) isn’t a number, it’s a concept. It describes something that can’t be expressed by a “finite” natural or real number.

## There are Different Types of Infinity

There are different types of infinity (∞) which differ by size, countability, “flavor” and more. Most types have practical real world applications.

## The Earth Isn’t Flat

The Earth is not flat; the Earth is an oblate spheroid (a bumpy sphere with a fat equator and skinny poles). There are many ways to prove the earth’s geometry.

## People Can be Truly Unbiased

People can’t be truly unbiased; we are hardwired with bias and create bias constantly as part of the natural neurological process of learning.

## Correlation Does Not Imply Causation

Correlation does not imply causation, but it can indicate it. The more correlating factors between events, the more likely there is a causal relationship.

## Past Outcomes of Random Events Affect Future Outcomes

Past results of random independent events, like a coin flip, don’t affect future results. The mistaken belief that past results affect future results is known as “the Gambler’s Fallacy” (AKA the Fallacy of the Maturity of Chances, or the Monte Carlo Fallacy).

## A Theory Isn’t True Unless Proven True

A theory can be true or not true, all we know about a scientific theory is that it has predictive power and hasn’t been proven wrong by experiment yet.