Mathematics (Math) is the study of physical properties and measurable change, logic is a philosophy that uses mathematics-based reasoning. Logic can also apply non-mathematics-based reasoning (see section on logic in philosophy for all non-mathematics based logic).

Bayes’ Theorem Can Calculate Probable Truth

Bayes’ theorem is a probability theory used to calculate the likelihood of an event being true or not true based on conditions related to the event. (i.e. an equation used for calculating conditional probabilities).

Pi is an Irrational Number

Pi (π) is an irrational number, meaning it represents a real number with a non-repeating pattern that can’t fully be expressed.

Correlation Does Not Imply Causation

Correlation does not imply causation, but it can indicate it. The more correlating factors between events, the more likely there is a causal relationship.

Past Outcomes of Random Events Affect Future Outcomes

Past results of random independent events, like a coin flip, don’t affect future results. The mistaken belief that past results affect future results is known as “the Gambler’s Fallacy” (AKA the Fallacy of the Maturity of Chances, or the Monte Carlo Fallacy).

Computers Can Generate True Random Numbers

Computers can’t generate truly random numbers in the purest sense with software alone. However, computers can generate truly random numbers with the help of natural random events.

Everyone Has 6 Degrees of Separation From Kevin Bacon

Most people have about 6 degrees of separation (small world theory), but not everyone has 6 degrees of separation from Kevin Bacon or any other given person.

Ada Lovelace Wrote the First Computer Program

British mathematician Ada Lovelace can be considered the mother of computer programing, as she wrote the first complex algorithm meant to be carried out by a machine. However, it is a myth that Ada Lovelace wrote “the first computer program” or was “the first computer programmer”, that title belongs to Charles Babbage.

René Descartes Slept in an Oven

René Descartes didn’t sleep in an oven, but he did invent analytical geometry while sleeping in a room with an oven (likely a masonry heater).