Philosophy is the study of the natural and theoretical nature of knowledge, reality, existence, and being. Philosophy can broken down into categories based on subject and technique. See the branches of philosophy.

## Deductive, Inductive, and Abductive Reasoning Explained

Deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning are three basic reasoning types. In simple terms, deductive reasoning deals with certainty, inductive reasoning with probability, and abductive reasoning with guesswork.

## The Difference Between Fact and Opinion

Facts are things that are the case for sure, they are stated plainly and without bias. Opinions meanwhile inject subjectivity and bias. Since most content in any form contains at least some subjectivity and bias, it is rare to find pure facts and common to find opinion.

## Whatever is the Case, is the Case

Whatever is the case, is the case. That is to say, whatever is true is true within a system, is true within that system (for example, whatever is the case, in reality, is the case in reality; or, whatever is true in mathematics, is true in mathematics).

## I Ching-ing Things; Or, Looking For Meaning in Mostly Random Events

The I Ching is an ancient Chinese text used for divination. Essentially it helps the reader draw meaning from the randomness of the world. This concept can be applied to anything.

## Potentially, Everything is Light

Nikola Tesla was said to have said “everything is light.” That is potentially correct. In theory, the universe could be explained by electromagnetic energy.

## Analysis and Synthesis Explained

In simple terms, analysis examines a system by dividing a whole into its parts, and synthesis examines a system by combining and comparing parts.

## Inductive Reasoning Explained

We explain inductive reasoning, a bottom-up reasoning method that reasons by consistency, comparing particulars and probabilities to find likely truths.

## What is a Truth-Value?

A truth-value is a label that is given to a statement (a proposition) that denotes the relation of the statement to truth.

## You Can’t Prove a Negative

The saying “you can’t prove a negative” isn’t accurate. Proving negatives is a foundational aspect of logic (ex. the law of contradiction).

## Types of Conflict Theories

We explain Marx’s conflict theory and other conflict theories to show how tension between social, political, material, and other forces manifest.