While the term Columbia sometimes refers to the whole New World (all the Americas), historically the United States of America was called Columbia specifically (especially after the 1730s when Christopher Columbus became increasingly idealized for his pioneering spirit).
“People and self” refers to humans and groups they form, as well as, the understanding the human experience.
The Optimates like Pompey (aristocrats) and Populares like Julius Caesar (populists) were two opposing political factions at the onset of the fall of the Roman Republic.
Extreme equality and an extreme inequality are both equally as dangerous in a democratic society. In both cases it corrupts the government.
Below is the Federalist #10, written by James Madison, and reprinted in full. We explain, annotate, and offer context on the Federalist #10.
As James Madison said when discussing special interest factions and liberty in the Federalist #10, “Liberty is to faction what air is to fire, an aliment without which it instantly expires”.