Charles Darwin came up with the idea of natural selection, but he didn’t coin the phrase “survival of the fittest”, that was Herbert Spencer in 1864’s Principles of Sociology.
Scientists are “people who do science” (AKA engage in systematic activity in order to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world via falsifiable experiment and theory).
While the term Columbia sometimes refers to the whole New World (all the Americas), historically the United States of America was called Columbia specifically (especially after the 1730s when Christopher Columbus became increasingly idealized for his pioneering spirit).
Nettie Stevens and Edmund Beecher Wilson independently discovered the chromosomal XY sex-determination system (that males have XY and females have XX sex chromosomes).
Isaac Newton produced many well-known works in math, astronomy, and physics, but he produced about as many unpublished works which dealt with theology, alchemy, and the occult.
Kant predicted the effect of tides on the earth’s rotation, the composition of nebulae and the solar system, and a multi-galaxy universe in 1755; his theories weren’t fully confirmed until the 1900’s.
Alan Turing can be considered “the father of computer science and AI.” Turing made major contributions to computing, codebreaking, and even helped the Allies win WWII.
Jonas Salk invented the polio vaccine in 1953 but never patented it. He believed, that like the sun, a vaccine for polio belonged to the people.