Laws are a system of rules that govern behavior. Typically laws are written, followed, and enforced as a social contract between members of society.

All Action is Human Action

As Mises said, “all action is human action”. In other words, although we form groups that can indirectly act through consensus, groups themselves aren’t physical entities (and thus they can’t act directly).

Eugenics Has Historically Been a Popular Theory


Eugenics (including positive eugenics which breeds traits, and negative eugenics which prevents breeding) has been practiced since the Greeks, but rose to popularity in the west starting in the late 1800’s.

The Birth of Modern Banking

The Birth of Banking

Modern banking originated in Italy around 1150 as Jews fleeing persecution brought new practices, including “discounting”, to the merchant banks of the Italian piazzas.

What is the State of Nature?

The state of nature.

The state of nature is the state humans lived in before forming the first societies. By examining the state of nature we can better understand the implicit and explicit social contracts which govern societies.