Niccolò Machiavelli can be considered the father of modern political science, and his book The Prince one of the first works of modern political philosophy (if not just modern philosophy).
Thinking is a mental process which allows humans to model the world, philosophy is the attempt to understand the world using logic and reason. The world being both the external and the internal, and both the knowable and unknowable.
For an overview of philosophy see our branches of philosophy page, for an introduction to philosophy check out Reason at Work (Amazon). Philosophy includes everything from economic and political philosophies, to the philosophies of emotions and mind, to cosmological and other other metaphysical questions, to the nature of god and religion, to the very nature of what we can know. Given that every subject has a science and philosophy (with the two often merging, such is the case in theoretical physics or mathematics) we have to be careful not to undervalue the practical aspects of this non-science.
We explore the nature of truth, the different types of truth, and the different types of entities who report truth to better understand the nature of information.
Collectivism describes ideology (political or otherwise) that favors the collective, like-wise Individualism describes ideology that favors the individual.
Whether or not machines can think, depends on our definition of “think.” Generally we can say, machines can think, but they think differently than humans.
Here is a list of the fundamental dualities relating to human nature and the physical and conceptual universe.
After reading David Hume, Immanuel Kant avoided social engagements for decade while fusing Hume’s ideas with his own, the result was Kant’s, a Critique of Pure Reason.
Isaac Newton produced many well-known works in math, astronomy, and physics, but he produced about as many unpublished works which dealt with theology, alchemy, and the occult.
Mary Wollstonecraft can be considered “the first modern feminist” or “the mother of feminism” due to her advocating women’s rights in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792).
We present a summary of the history of human rights documents including the Bill of Rights, Magna Carta, Declaration of Rights and Man, and English Bill of Rights.
The Constitution protects our Liberty, but the law has placed limits on this. Those limits are sometimes enforced with large legal fees. To what effect this promotes social justice, and to what effect this harms social justice by creating opposition is debated.