<p>Philosophical theories are theories that are philosophical, rather than purely scientific by nature. Meanwhile, philosophical concepts can be loosely describes as ideas or “concepts” that are philosophical in nature.</p>
<p>Generally, a concept is a single idea, a theory is an explanation of how something works, and philosophy is simply the study of that which we can’t know for sure (see <a href="http://factmyth.com/the-branches-of-philosophy-overview/">the branches of philosophy</a>.).</p>
<p>So then, for our purposes, philosophical theories and concepts is simply a broad category that contains all non-scientific theories worth discussing.</p>
<p><strong>TIP</strong>: For a great explainer on the basics of Philosophy see <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mm8asJxdcds" target="_blank">Tamar Gendler: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Politics and Economics by Big Think</a>.</p>
<p><strong>NOTE</strong>: Some scientific theories that spark <a href="http://factmyth.com/factoids/physics-is-different-than-metaphysics/">metaphysical</a> philosophical questions are categorized here (as well as under their respective scientific fields). Learn more about <a href="http://factmyth.com/factoids/a-theory-is-not-true-unless-proven-true/">scientific theories</a>.</p>

The Greeks Founded the Basis of Utilitarianism and Consequentialism Fact

Although we can consider Jeremy Bentham the founder of modern Utilitarianism, and his successor John Stuart Mill the one who popularized it, early Greek philosophers like Aristotle, Aristippus and Epicurus presented the original Utilitarian / Consequentialist / Greatest Happiness theories.

What is Reason?

Reason is the application of “pure logic”, empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).

Re-Defining Social Capitalism

Social Capitalism can be defined as a socially minded form of capitalism, where the goal is doing social good, rather than just the accumulation of capital.

What is Liberalism?

Liberalism is the political ideology of liberty and equality. Classical liberalism focuses on individual liberty, and modern social liberalism focuses on social equality.

John Locke is the Father of Liberalism Fact

John Locke can be considered the father of liberalism. His theories on life, liberty, property, consent, and the social contract form the foundation of classical liberalism.

Civil Religion

We explain Civil Religion (the national iconography, ritual, and symbolism of a state) by looking at American Civil Religion (like the national anthem, Lady Liberty, and other Americana), at past Civil Religions (like Athena in Athens), and at Rousseau’s original concept of Civic Religion.