Plato discusses five regimes (five forms of government) in his Republic, Book VIII. They are Aristocracy, Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny.
Philosophical theories are theories that are philosophical, rather than purely scientific by nature. Meanwhile, philosophical concepts can be loosely describes as ideas or “concepts” that are philosophical in nature.
Generally, a concept is a single idea, a theory is an explanation of how something works, and philosophy is simply the study of that which we can’t know for sure (see the branches of philosophy.).
So then, for our purposes, philosophical theories and concepts is simply a broad category that contains all non-scientific theories worth discussing.
TIP: For a great explainer on the basics of Philosophy see Tamar Gendler: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Politics and Economics by Big Think.
Classically speaking, the term Polity means “state” or “form of government”, but implies an “ideal state” or “ideal form of government”.
All knowledge, all human understanding, can be said to be of four types: physical (empirical), logical (reason), ethical (philosophy in-action), and metaphysical (pure philosophy).
To discuss something properly, it helps to name it. That can mean naming a concept, an abstraction of an existing concept, or a theory. Without naming it, it is hard to talk about.
What we call the political left and right are an advent of liberty and the human condition. Once people are free to express themselves, they will create a left and right.
Principles are the fundamental underlying truths and beliefs that form the foundation of our knowledge and values and guide our action.
Bringing secrets and the taboo “out of the dark and into the light”, by practicing transparency and openness rather than repression, takes away their power.
The concept of political correctness can be understood as an excess or deficiency of a few key virtues. Here is a model of “the virtues of political correctness” based on Aristotle’s virtue theory of means.
Plato’s Republic, utilitarianism, the philosophies of morality, ethics, politics, virtue, and law are all centered around one question “what is justice?” (AKA “what is fairness?”).
A Republic is a lawful, constitutional, and sovereign state in which a sovereign people are represented by representatives.