Thomas Jefferson is credited with having said, “equal rights for all, special privileges for none,” a slogan that other progressive Democrats like Williams Jennings Bryan embraced.
<p>Philosophical theories are theories that are philosophical, rather than purely scientific by nature. Meanwhile, philosophical concepts can be loosely describes as ideas or “concepts” that are philosophical in nature.</p>
<p>Generally, a concept is a single idea, a theory is an explanation of how something works, and philosophy is simply the study of that which we can’t know for sure (see <a href="http://factmyth.com/the-branches-of-philosophy-overview/">the branches of philosophy</a>.).</p>
<p>So then, for our purposes, philosophical theories and concepts is simply a broad category that contains all non-scientific theories worth discussing.</p>
<p><strong>TIP</strong>: For a great explainer on the basics of Philosophy see <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mm8asJxdcds" target="_blank">Tamar Gendler: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Politics and Economics by Big Think</a>.</p>
<p><strong>NOTE</strong>: Some scientific theories that spark <a href="http://factmyth.com/factoids/physics-is-different-than-metaphysics/">metaphysical</a> philosophical questions are categorized here (as well as under their respective scientific fields). Learn more about <a href="http://factmyth.com/factoids/a-theory-is-not-true-unless-proven-true/">scientific theories</a>.</p>
Although we can consider Jeremy Bentham the founder of modern Utilitarianism, and his successor John Stuart Mill the one who popularized it, early Greek philosophers like Aristotle, Aristippus and Epicurus presented the original Utilitarian / Consequentialist / Greatest Happiness theories.
On this page we discuss the concepts of fairness, justice, morality, and ethics as they relate to Utilitarianism.
We explain how experince and social interactions shape our frame of reference and create ideological bubbles, and how this creates confirmation bias and “bubble filters” that reinforce these bubbles.
Reason is the application of “pure logic”, empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).
Social Capitalism can be defined as a socially minded form of capitalism, where the goal is doing social good, rather than just the accumulation of capital.
Liberalism is the political ideology of liberty and equality. Classical liberalism focuses on individual liberty, and modern social liberalism focuses on social equality.
We explain Civil Religion (the national iconography, ritual, and symbolism of a state) by looking at American Civil Religion (like the national anthem, Lady Liberty, and other Americana), at past Civil Religions (like Athena in Athens), and at Rousseau’s original concept of Civic Religion.
Below we explain neoliberalism, globalization, nativism, and protectionism and the pros and cons of neoliberal globalization and nativist protectionism.