Philosophical theories are theories that are philosophical, rather than purely scientific by nature. Meanwhile, philosophical concepts can be loosely describes as ideas or “concepts” that are philosophical in nature.

Generally, a concept is a single idea, a theory is an explanation of how something works, and philosophy is simply the study of that which we can’t know for sure (see the branches of philosophy.).

So then, for our purposes, philosophical theories and concepts is simply a broad category that contains all non-scientific theories worth discussing.

TIP: For a great explainer on the basics of Philosophy see Tamar Gendler: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Politics and Economics by Big Think.

NOTE: Some scientific theories that spark metaphysical philosophical questions are categorized here (as well as under their respective scientific fields). Learn more about scientific theories.


Plato’s Five Regimes

Plato discusses five regimes (five forms of government) in his Republic, Book VIII. They are Aristocracy, Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny.


What is a Polity?

Classically speaking, the term Polity means “state” or “form of government”, but implies an “ideal state” or “ideal form of government”.


The Spheres of Human Understanding

All knowledge, all human understanding, can be said to be of four types: physical (empirical), logical (reason), ethical (philosophy in-action), and metaphysical (pure philosophy).


Giving Names to Concepts

To discuss something properly, it helps to name it. That can mean naming a concept, an abstraction of an existing concept, or a theory. Without naming it, it is hard to talk about.



The Importance of Principles

Principles are the fundamental underlying truths and beliefs that form the foundation of our knowledge and values and guide our action.



The Virtues of Political Correctness

The concept of political correctness can be understood as an excess or deficiency of a few key virtues. Here is a model of “the virtues of political correctness” based on Aristotle’s virtue theory of means.


What is Fairness? / What is Justice?

Plato’s Republic, utilitarianism, the philosophies of morality, ethics, politics, virtue, and law are all centered around one question “what is justice?” (AKA “what is fairness?”).


What is a Republic?

A Republic is a lawful, constitutional, and sovereign state in which a sovereign people are represented by representatives.