Thinking is a mental process which allows humans to model the world, philosophy is the attempt to understand the world using logic and reason. The world being both the external and the internal, and both the knowable and unknowable.

For an overview of philosophy see our branches of philosophy page, for an introduction to philosophy check out Reason at Work (Amazon). Philosophy includes everything from economic and political philosophies, to the philosophies of emotions and mind, to cosmological and other other metaphysical questions, to the nature of god and religion, to the very nature of what we can know. Given that every subject has a science and philosophy (with the two often merging, such is the case in theoretical physics or mathematics) we have to be careful not to undervalue the practical aspects of this non-science.

A List of Dualities

Here is a list of the fundamental dualities relating to human nature and the physical and conceptual universe.

The Secret Life of Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton produced many well-known works in math, astronomy, and physics, but he produced about as many unpublished works which dealt with theology, alchemy, and the occult.

Do Fines and Fees Ensure Social Justice, or Do They Harm it?

The Constitution protects our Liberty, but the law has placed limits on this. Those limits are sometimes enforced with large legal fees. To what effect this promotes social justice, and to what effect this harms social justice by creating opposition is debated.

The Basic Types of Political Parties

On this page, we look at political parties from a historical perspective to better understand the underlying left-right politics all political parties are based on.

Tolerance Paradoxes Explained

We explain paradoxes related to tolerance and¬†Politically Correctness (PC), including “the paradox of tolerance” and “tolerance as a form of intolerance.”

What is “the Invisible Hand”?

“The invisible hand” is a term used by Adam Smith to describe the theory that self-interest leads to social and economic benefits in a free-market.