Deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning are three basic reasoning types. Each work together to form a complete line of formal reasoning where deduction deals with certainty, induction with probability, and abduction with guesswork.
Philosophy is the study of the natural and theoretical nature of knowledge, reality, existence, and being. Philosophy can broken down into categories based on subject and technique. See the branches of philosophy.
Facts are things that are the case for sure, they are stated plainly and without bias. Opinions meanwhile inject subjectivity and bias. Since most content in any form contains at least some subjectivity and bias, it is rare to find pure facts and common to find opinion.
The I Ching is an ancient Chinese text used for divination. Essentially it helps the reader draw meaning from the randomness of the world. This concept can be applied to anything.
In simple terms, analysis examines a system by dividing a whole into its parts, and synthesis examines a system by combining and comparing parts.
We explain inductive reasoning, a bottom-up reasoning method that reasons by consistency, comparing particulars and probabilities to find likely truths.
A truth-value is a label that is given to a statement (a proposition) that denotes the relation of the statement to truth.
We explain Marx’s conflict theory and other conflict theories to show how tension between social, political, material, and other forces manifest.