Philosophy is the study of the natural and theoretical nature of knowledge, reality, existence, and being. Philosophy can broken down into categories based on subject and technique. See the branches of philosophy.

Deductive, Inductive, and Abductive Reasoning Explained

Deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning are three basic reasoning types. Each work together to form a complete line of formal reasoning where deduction deals with certainty, induction with probability, and abduction with guesswork.

The Difference Between Fact and Opinion

Facts are things that are the case for sure, they are stated plainly and without bias. Opinions meanwhile inject subjectivity and bias. Since most content in any form contains at least some subjectivity and bias, it is rare to find pure facts and common to find opinion.

Potentially, Everything is Light Fact

Nikola Tesla was said to have said “everything is light.” That is potentially correct. In theory, the universe could be explained by electromagnetic energy.

Analysis and Synthesis Explained

In simple terms, analysis examines a system by dividing a whole into its parts, and synthesis examines a system by combining and comparing parts.

Inductive Reasoning Explained

We explain inductive reasoning, a bottom-up reasoning method that reasons by consistency, comparing particulars and probabilities to find likely truths.

What is a Truth-Value?

A truth-value is a label that is given to a statement (a proposition) that denotes the relation of the statement to truth.

You Can’t Prove a Negative Myth

The saying “you can’t prove a negative” isn’t accurate. Proving negatives is a foundational aspect of logic (ex. the law of contradiction).

Types of Conflict Theories

We explain Marx’s conflict theory and other conflict theories to show how tension between social, political, material, and other forces manifest.