Philosophy is the study of the natural and theoretical nature of knowledge, reality, existence, and being. Philosophy can broken down into categories based on subject and technique. See the branches of philosophy.


Plato’s Five Regimes

Plato discusses five regimes (five forms of government) in his Republic, Book VIII. They are Aristocracy, Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny.


What is a Polity?

Classically speaking, the term Polity means “state” or “form of government”, but implies an “ideal state” or “ideal form of government”.


The Spheres of Human Understanding

All knowledge, all human understanding, can be said to be of four types: physical (empirical), logical (reason), ethical (philosophy in-action), and metaphysical (pure philosophy).


Giving Names to Concepts

To discuss something properly, it helps to name it. That can mean naming a concept, an abstraction of an existing concept, or a theory. Without naming it, it is hard to talk about.



The Importance of Principles

Principles are the fundamental underlying truths and beliefs that form the foundation of our knowledge and values and guide our action.



The Virtues of Political Correctness

The concept of political correctness can be understood as an excess or deficiency of a few key virtues. Here is a model of “the virtues of political correctness” based on Aristotle’s virtue theory of means.


What is Fairness? / What is Justice?

Plato’s Republic, utilitarianism, the philosophies of morality, ethics, politics, virtue, and law are all centered around one question “what is justice?” (AKA “what is fairness?”).


What is a Republic?

A Republic is a lawful, constitutional, and sovereign state in which a sovereign people are represented by representatives.