Although we can consider Jeremy Bentham the founder of modern Utilitarianism, and his successor John Stuart Mill the one who popularized it, early Greek philosophers like Aristotle, Aristippus and Epicurus presented the original Utilitarian / Consequentialist / Greatest Happiness theories.
<p>Political Science is the science of politics, or the science of the nation-state. It is the art of diplomacy, the study of ideas, ideologies, and influence, the science of strategy, economics, and rhetoric, and more. Perhaps political science is best summed up by Aristotle in his discussing of man’s role in creating the ideal nation-city-state:</p>
<p>“Political science aims at what is the highest of all goods achievable by action…. though it is worth while to attain <em>the end</em> [AKA <a href="http://factmyth.com/the-point-of-life-is-happiness/">happiness</a>/<a href="http://factmyth.com/arete-explained/">arete</a>/”the greatest good”/”the highest good”] merely for one man, it is finer and more godlike to attain it for a nation or for city-states. These, then, are the ends at which our inquiry aims, since it is political science, in one sense of that term.<span style="line-height: 1.5;">” – </span><strong style="line-height: 1.5;">Aristotle on the meaning of life, virtue, morals, ethics, and the city-state, <em><a href="http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.1.i.html" target="_blank">Nicomachean Ethics</a></em> 350 BC</strong></p>
The major U.S. political parties switched factions many times in history. The story is complex. Here are some different ways to look at it.
William Jennings Bryan can be considered the father of modern American left-wing and right-wing populism, including progressivism, the religious right, workers’ movements like the free-silver movement, the income tax, direct elections of Senators, and more.
In general, four powers have ruled over the citizens of a nation in any era, these are Barons, Churches, Kings, and Citizens themselves.
George Washington ran without any serious opposition in 1789 and 1792 and James Monroe was re-elected without serious opposition in 1820. Thus, we can say “they ran unopposed” and be mostly correct.
Liberalism is the political ideology of liberty and equality. Classical liberalism focuses on individual liberty, and modern social liberalism focuses on social equality.
The United States has the world’s highest incarceration rate and hosts more prison inmates than all other developed nations combined.