Religion is the study or practice of preexisting beliefs, generally involving faith. Beliefs refer to people’s understandings and perceptions of things.


Intention Matters Fact

Intention matters in planning, action, and doing. Attention, intention, and impact are all important components of an action.


The United States of America is a Democracy Fact

The United States is a Constitutional Federal Republic (a federation of states with a Representative Democracy). Despite a strong democratic tradition, the U.S. is not a “Direct Democracy” (where people vote on laws directly*).


The Branches of Philosophy Overview

The major branches of philosophy are [roughly], metaphysics (what is), epistemology (what we can know), logic and reason, ethics and morality, and aesthetics (beauty and art).


There are Different Types of Good and Evil Fact

There are different types of good and evil. The way to understand the types of good and evil differs by culture and text, but we can find general similarities by looking at major works and belief systems.



Arete Explained

Areté roughly means “moral virtue”. It refers to an innate “excellence” or “essence” in all things, and the striving toward that potential or purpose.


Being Gay Used to Be Illegal Fact

“Being gay” (same-sex activity and partnership) used to be illegal in the U.S. and the U.K., and being gay is still illegal in many parts of the world. The details are complex.


There Was a “Golden Age” of Islam Fact

The Islamic Golden Age lasted from roughly the 8th – 13th century. In this time, Islam helped spread, persevere, and advance science, wisdom, reason, and learning.


Western Astrology Explained

Astrology is a system of fortune telling that assigns meaning to planets based on symbolism relating to old theories like alchemy, the classical elements, and what we now called “mythology”


Astrology is Based on Science Fact

Aspects of astrology are rooted in the science of astronomy and the academic tradition, but today astrology is considered a pseudoscience.