Religion is the study or practice of preexisting beliefs, generally involving faith. Beliefs refer to people’s understandings and perceptions of things.





Civil Religion

We explain Civil Religion (the national iconography, ritual, and symbolism of a state) by looking at American Civil Religion (like the national anthem, Lady Liberty, and other Americana), at past Civil Religions (like Athena in Athens), and at Rousseau’s original concept of Civic Religion.


Where Does the State of Nature Argument Come From?

We often attribute the origin of the state of nature argument to Hobbes, but it can be traced to thinkers like Plato, Aristotle, and the Sophists in the 300’s BC, and is then mused on by other early philosophers.



The Birth of Modern Banking

Modern banking originated in Italy around 1150 as Jews fleeing persecution brought new practices, including “discounting”, to the merchant banks of the Italian piazzas.



Vices and Virtues Explained

On this page we present a list of vices and virtues and look at vices and virtues as understood by philosophers like Aristotle and Aquinas.