Beliefs are anything a person thinks is true and adheres to, belief systems are world views followed by groups.
We explain Civil Religion (the national iconography, ritual, and symbolism of a state) by looking at American Civil Religion (like the national anthem, Lady Liberty, and other Americana), at past Civil Religions (like Athena in Athens), and at Rousseau’s original concept of Civic Religion.
Modern banking originated in Italy around 1150 as Jews fleeing persecution brought new practices, including “discounting”, to the merchant banks of the Italian piazzas.
Below we present an annotated version of Andrew Carnegie’s 1889 essay Wealth (better known as the Gospel of Wealth).
Western Classical Element Theory can be seen as a metaphor the human condition where fire is will and action, air is reason, water is the passions and spirit, and earth is the physical.
Isaac Newton produced many well-known works in math, astronomy, and physics, but he produced about as many unpublished works which dealt with theology, alchemy, and the occult.
The major branches of philosophy are (roughly), metaphysics (what is), epistemology (what we can know), logic and reason, ethics and morality, and aesthetics (beauty and art).