Competitive sports became popular in the United States from 1850 – 1950 because of lighting technology, mass media, and developing labor and education laws.
Technology is a broad category that deals with the usage and knowledge of tools. Applied Sciences are the study and application of those tools.
British mathematician Ada Lovelace can be considered the mother of computer programing, as she wrote the first complex algorithm meant to be carried out by a machine. However, it is a myth that Ada Lovelace wrote “the first computer program” or was “the first computer programmer”, that title belongs to Charles Babbage.
The ancient Greek device, the Antikythera mechanism (circa 200 – 100 BC), is generally considered to be the world’s oldest known mechanical analog computer.