Truth and facts have a lot in common, but they are not exactly the same. Truth is something that is the case. Facts are true statements. Truth is best described using facts and logical reasoning.
A truth-value is a label that is given to a statement (a proposition) that denotes the relation of the statement to truth.
The idea that all truth is subjective, that there is no objective truth, is a myth. Everything either has an absolute truth value (even if we can’t know it) or is an opinion or belief.
Mark Twain is said to have said, “If you tell the truth you don’t have to remember anything”, meaning if you tell a lie you have to remember what lie you told to who.
We explore the nature of truth, the different types of truth, and the different types of entities who report truth to better understand the nature of information.
Bayes’ theorem is a probability theory used to calculate the likelihood of an event being true or not true based on conditions related to the event. (i.e. an equation used for calculating conditional probabilities).
We explain inductive reasoning, a bottom-up reasoning method that reasons by consistency, comparing particulars and probabilities to find likely truths.
The saying “you can’t prove a negative” isn’t accurate. Proving negatives is a foundational aspect of logic (ex. the law of contradiction).
We explain and compare the different types of reasoning methods including deductive, inductive, abductive, analogical, and fallacious reasoning.
We present a basic theory of human knowledge to help illustrate some essentials of “what we can know” and “how we can know it.”