Equality is a symbolic expression of things being equivalent in value, but not necessarily “exactly the same”.

In terms of civil equality it expresses an equality of civil liberty, right, and justice in accordance with the ideal general will.

Mathematically, and generally, equality simply expresses an equivalence of value (such as in 1+2=3 and F=ma).

The Paradox Principle

The Paradox Principle

In practice, human action often has paradoxical or unintended effects. Sometimes effects or side effects even have the exact opposite effect as intended.

Types of Governments

Basic Forms of Government

We explain and list the types of governments. We cover the basic classical forms of government, the many types of governments that can be derived from the classical forms, and the actual forms of governments in practice.