Systems are sets of interconnected properties, systems have a boundary and outside the boundary is the environment. Systems can be physical or conceptual. Generally systems can be understood with math, models, and rule-sets. We can reduce complex systems to their basic properties and interactions and compare systems to better understand the physical universe.

The Paradox Principle

The Paradox Principle

In practice, human action often has paradoxical or unintended effects. Sometimes effects or side effects even have the exact opposite effect as intended.

The Caste System Explained

India’s caste system is a class system based on birth. These classes, or “Varnas”, are: Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (ruling and military), Vaishyas (merchants and farmers), Shudras (peasants), Dalits (untouchables).

Types of Governments

Basic Forms of Government

We explain and list the types of governments. We cover the basic classical forms of government, the many types of governments that can be derived from the classical forms, and the actual forms of governments in practice.