Plato (428-347 BC), his teacher Socrates, Plato’s teacher Aristotle (384-322 BC), their Sophist opposition, and other key Greeks helped lay the foundation of most western knowledge.

Plato was an idealist, Aristotle a Realist, but both were polymaths and lecturers whose books lay the foundation of physics, philosophy, social science, and more.

Meanwhile they both argued more for philosophy (a love of wisdom) over sophistry (teaching for money and thinking one “already knows”).

Types of Governments

Basic Forms of Government

We explain and list the types of governments. We cover the basic classical forms of government, the many types of governments that can be derived from the classical forms, and the actual forms of governments in practice.

Essentialism vs. Existentialism

Essentialism is the idea that everything has an essence (something that “makes it, it”). Existentialism says there is no essence (no intrinsic meaning that can be confirmed by the senses or reason).

Arete Explained

What is Arete?

Areté roughly means “moral virtue”. It refers to an innate “excellence” or “essence” in all things, and the striving toward that potential or purpose.