We often attribute the origin of the state of nature argument to Hobbes, but it can be traced to thinkers like Plato, Aristotle, and the Sophists in the 300’s BC, and is then mused on by other early philosophers.
Culture is a broad category referring to the way we experience, classify, and share our humanity. The arts, a subdivision of culture, focus on expression of experiences and ideas.
Arts and Culture include subjects like film and television, food and drink, video games, visual arts, performing arts, mass media, sports, literature, and more.
Historically, Protestantism is like classical liberalism (individual liberties and rights) and Catholicism is like social liberalism (state enforced social justice).
Below we present an annotated version of Andrew Carnegie’s 1889 essay Wealth (better known as the Gospel of Wealth).
Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818) can be read as a political metaphor where Dr. Frankenstein and his monster represent the philosophies and attitudes of the liberal revolutionaries, specifically those of the French Revolution and ensuing “Reign of Terror.”
Western Classical Element Theory can be seen as a metaphor the human condition where fire is will and action, air is reason, water is the passions and spirit, and earth is the physical.
The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) ruled that athletes can determine their own sex in international sports like the Olympics.
Studies have shown there is no single determinant of sex, gender, or sexuality. Thus, a binary distinction of “male or female” fails to describe a wide range of humans in practice.
Mark Twain is said to have said, “If you tell the truth you don’t have to remember anything”, meaning if you tell a lie you have to remember what lie you told to who.