## The Bohr Model is the Most Accurate Model of an Atom Myth

The Bohr model of the atom (1913), the one that looks like a solar system, has been replaced by the more accurate Quantum Model of the atom since 1927.

Mass (m) is the measure of a bodies energy content, a measure of how much energy is needed to accelerate an object, and a measure of the extent to which a body curves spacetime. The affects of mass give bodies “gravity” and “weight”. There are a few different ways to measure mass, but all can be understood through the lens of Newton and Einstein. Mass (potential energy) is understood as equivalent to energy (kinetic energy) using the speed of light as a conversion factor (*E=mc ^{2}.*). The fact that mass and energy can be conserved each other, means we can refer to both as simply mass-energy. All mass types can understood as the amount of force needed to accelerate an object (f=ma), except for quantum mass which is the frequency of energy in Planck units (

The Bohr model of the atom (1913), the one that looks like a solar system, has been replaced by the more accurate Quantum Model of the atom since 1927.

The Pauli Exclusion Principle says, two identical fermions (matter particles) can’t occupy the same quantum state. In simple terms, two identical things can’t occupy the same space.

The Black Hole Information Paradox suggests information can’t escape a black hole intact. While new theories show information may be able to escape, it hasn’t been proven as of 2016.

Human behavior can be random to some extent, but most behavior is based on prior input, and thus is “deterministic” (meaning not totally random).

Planck units, based on the reduced Planck constant (ℏ) and Planck constant (h), represent the smallest measurable units in the physical universe.

All known particles are either massless energy particles, or are composite particles with mass that are made from massless energy particles.

The standard model of particle physics shows how the elementary particles interact via the four forces to create the physical universe.

Everything we perceive depends on our frame of reference. What we observe is relative to our point of view. In other words, “it is all a matter of perspective”.

There are four fundamental forces or interactions in the universe: gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear.

No “thing” (including particles) can travel faster than light speed, but some “non-things” can. In both ways “nothing travels faster than the speed of light”.

Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence equation (E=mc2) shows that mass and energy are equivalent (but not “exactly the same”) properties of a physical system.

Energy can’t be created or destroyed and neither can mass. Although energy can change forms, all energy in a closed system must remain constant.

Time is relative to speed and gravity (time dilation), and so is space (length contraction). Light speed is constant for all observers, so time and space can’t be.

“Light” is a particle (photon), that acts like a wave, and is understood as a localized vibration in the electromagnetic field.

We explain the standard model of particle physics in simple terms for non-experts using videos, facts, and bullet points.