Mass (m) is the measure of a bodies energy content, a measure of how much energy is needed to accelerate an object, and a measure of the extent to which a body curves spacetime. The affects of mass give bodies “gravity” and “weight”. There are a few different ways to measure mass, but all can be understood through the lens of Newton and Einstein. Mass (potential energy) is understood as equivalent to energy (kinetic energy) using the speed of light as a conversion factor (E=mc2.). The fact that mass and energy can be conserved each other, means we can refer to both as simply mass-energy. All mass types can understood as the amount of force needed to accelerate an object (f=ma), except for quantum mass which is the frequency of energy in Planck units (E=hf).

## The Bohr Model is the Most Accurate Model of an AtomMyth

The Bohr model of the atom (1913), the one that looks like a solar system, has been replaced by the more accurate Quantum Model of the atom since 1927.

## Two Identical Things Can’t Occupy the Same SpaceFact

The Pauli Exclusion Principle says, two identical fermions (matter particles) can’t occupy the same quantum state. In simple terms, two identical things can’t occupy the same space.

## Information Can Escape from a Black HoleMyth

The Black Hole Information Paradox suggests information can’t escape a black hole intact. While new theories show information may be able to escape, it hasn’t been proven as of 2016.

## Human Behavior can be RandomFact

Human behavior can be random to some extent, but most behavior is based on prior input, and thus is “deterministic” (meaning not totally random).

## A Planck Unit Represents the Smallest Measurable UnitFact

Planck units, based on the reduced Planck constant (ℏ) and Planck constant (h), represent the smallest measurable units in the physical universe.

## All Particles are Made from Massless ParticlesFact

All known particles are either massless energy particles, or are composite particles with mass that are made from massless energy particles.

## The Standard Model Shows How Elementary Particles InteractFact

The standard model of particle physics shows how the elementary particles interact via the four forces to create the physical universe.

## Everything Depends on Frame of ReferenceFact

Everything we perceive depends on our frame of reference. What we observe is relative to our point of view. In other words, “it is all a matter of perspective”.

## There are Four Fundamental ForcesFact

There are four fundamental forces (interactions) in the universe: gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear.

## Nothing Can Travel Faster Than the Speed of LightFact

No “thing” (including particles) can travel faster than light speed, but some “non-things” can. In both ways “nothing travels faster than the speed of light”.

## E=mc^2 (Mass and Energy are Equivalent)Fact

Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence equation (E=mc2) shows that mass and energy are equivalent (but not “exactly the same”) properties of a physical system.

## Energy is Neither Created or DestroyedFact

Energy can’t be created or destroyed and neither can mass. Although energy can change forms, all energy in a closed system must remain constant.

## Time is RelativeFact

Time is relative to speed and gravity (time dilation), and so is space (length contraction). Light speed is constant for all observers, so time and space can’t be.

## What is Light?

We explain “light,” both as electromagnetic radiation within a visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and as electromagnetic energy carried by photons.

## The Standard Model (of Particle Physics) Explained

We explain the standard model of particle physics in simple terms for non-experts using videos, facts, and bullet points.