Language is any system of communication. The act of communication defines language more than the specific tools used. From this perspective communicating is language, while written and spoken words are simply specific symbolic tools used in language.


The Economy of Words

The Economy of Words: The art of communication using all symbolic measures afforded by digital paper. Or, how to communicate effectively, and with thrift.


What is an Alternative Fact?

“Alternative facts” is a term coined by Trump’s White House counselor Kellyanne Conway to describe questionable information presented as facts.


Types of American Progressivism

We explain the different types of American progressivism from the founders, to the Reform movements, to Bryan and the Roosevelts, to the progressives and populists of today.



Words that Mean the N-Word

You can’t say the N-Word anymore, but that doesn’t stop people from using vaguely racist code words. Here is a discussion on racial code words used in “dog-whistle” politics in America.





Frankenstein Can be Read as a Political Metaphor Fact

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818) can be read as a political metaphor where Dr. Frankenstein and his monster represent the philosophies and attitudes of the liberal revolutionaries, specifically those of the French Revolution and ensuing “Reign of Terror.”


What is the General Will?

Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s concept of the General Will roughly means “that which is in the best interest of the people” or “the public good”, and not just popular consensus.