Reason and logic are two closely related forms of thinking involving the comparison of terms which can be studied in terms of mathematics or philosophy and can be considered together as well as apart.

  1. There are terms or concepts we conceptualize by rationalizing or observing (by comparing attributes); like Socrates, men, or mortality.
  2. There are logical judgements (propositions) we get by comparing terms; like Socrates is a man, and all men are mortal. <— Logic
  3. Then there are reasoned inferences we get by comparing judgements and propositions and considering their implications; like since Socrates is a man and since all men are mortal, therefore Socrates is mortal. <—Reason

Or more poetically:

  • Reason is the application of “pure logic,” empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).
  • Enlightenment is simply the natural conclusions to which reason leads.

Enlightenment, in then in this respect, is the “ends” of using logic and reason to shed light on that which we would not otherwise know. The change between not knowing and knowing. See the Cave metaphor.

Factoids tagged with "Logic and Reason"

You Can’t Prove a Negative Myth

The saying “you can’t prove a negative” isn’t accurate. Proving negatives is a foundational aspect of logic (ex. the law of contradiction).

Bayes’ Theorem Can Calculate Probable Truth Fact

Bayes’ theorem is a probability theory used to calculate the likelihood of an event being true or not true based on conditions related to the event. (i.e. an equation used for calculating conditional probabilities).

Past Outcomes of Random Events Affect Future Outcomes Myth

Past results of random independent events, like a coin flip, don’t affect future results. The mistaken belief that past results affect future results is known as “the Gambler’s Fallacy” (AKA the Fallacy of the Maturity of Chances, or the Monte Carlo Fallacy).

Blog Posts tagged with "Logic and Reason"

Deductive, Inductive, and Abductive Reasoning Explained

Deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning are three basic reasoning types. Each work together to form a complete line of formal reasoning where deduction deals with certainty, induction with probability, and abduction with guesswork.

The Difference Between Fact and Opinion

Facts are things that are the case for sure, they are stated plainly and without bias. Opinions meanwhile inject subjectivity and bias. Since most content in any form contains at least some subjectivity and bias, it is rare to find pure facts and common to find opinion.

Analysis and Synthesis Explained

In simple terms, analysis examines a system by dividing a whole into its parts, and synthesis examines a system by combining and comparing parts.

Inductive Reasoning Explained

We explain inductive reasoning, a bottom-up reasoning method that reasons by consistency, comparing particulars and probabilities to find likely truths.

What is a Truth-Value?

A truth-value is a label that is given to a statement (a proposition) that denotes the relation of the statement to truth.

What is the Difference Between Logic and Reason?

Reason and logic are two closely related forms of thinking involving the comparison of terms that can be studied in terms of mathematics or philosophy and can be considered together as well as apart.

The Spheres of Human Understanding

All knowledge, all human understanding, can be said to be of four types: physical (empirical), logical (reason), ethical (philosophy in-action), and metaphysical (pure philosophy).

Giving Names to Concepts

We discuss “giving names to concepts” (defining terms), identifying with terms, be identified by terms, and the implications of this.

What is an Alternative Fact?

Alternative facts describe inconsistent sets of information submitted as plausible evidence for competing sides of a case/debate/argument.

What is Reason?

Reason is the application of “pure logic”, empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).

Hume’s Fork Explained

“Hume’s fork” describes how we refer to Kant’s critique of Hume, who separated knowledge into two types: facts based on ideas and facts based on experience.

The Branches of Philosophy Overview

The major branches of philosophy can be denoted as: metaphysics (what is), epistemology (what we can know), logic and reason, ethics and morality, and aesthetics (beauty and art).

Conspiracy Theories Explained

Conspiracy theories are sets of one more speculative hypotheses, backed by fallacious reasoning, that suppose a conspiracy.

Book Reviews tagged with "Logic and Reason"