Reason and logic are two closely related forms of thinking involving the comparison of terms which can be studied in terms of mathematics or philosophy and can be considered together as well as apart.

  1. There are terms or concepts we conceptualize by rationalizing or observing (by comparing attributes); like Socrates, men, or mortality.
  2. There are logical judgements (propositions) we get by comparing terms; like Socrates is a man, and all men are mortal. <— Logic
  3. Then there are reasoned inferences we get by comparing judgements and propositions and considering their implications; like since Socrates is a man and since all men are mortal, therefore Socrates is mortal. <—Reason

Or more poetically:

  • Reason is the application of “pure logic,” empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).
  • Enlightenment is simply the natural conclusions to which reason leads.

Enlightenment, in then in this respect, is the “ends” of using logic and reason to shed light on that which we would not otherwise know. The change between not knowing and knowing. See the Cave metaphor.

The Difference Between Fact and Opinion

Facts are things that are the case for sure, they are stated plainly and without bias. Opinions meanwhile inject subjectivity and bias. Since most content in any form contains at least some subjectivity and bias, it is rare to find pure facts and common to find opinion.