Reason and logic are two closely related forms of thinking involving the comparison of terms which can be studied in terms of mathematics or philosophy and can be considered together as well as apart.

  1. There are terms or concepts we conceptualize by rationalizing or observing (by comparing attributes); like Socrates, men, or mortality.
  2. There are logical judgements (propositions) we get by comparing terms; like Socrates is a man, and all men are mortal. <— Logic
  3. Then there are reasoned inferences we get by comparing judgements and propositions and considering their implications; like since Socrates is a man and since all men are mortal, therefore Socrates is mortal. <—Reason

Or more poetically:

  • Reason is the application of “pure logic,” empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).
  • Enlightenment is simply the natural conclusions to which reason leads.

Enlightenment, in these terms, the “ends” of using logic and reason to shed light on that which we would not otherwise know. The change between not knowing and knowing.


Factoids tagged with "Logic and Reason"

You Can’t Prove a Negative Myth

The saying “you can’t prove a negative” isn’t accurate. Proving negatives is a foundational aspect of logic (ex. the law of contradiction).

Past Outcomes of Random Events Affect Future Outcomes Myth

Past results of random independent events, like a coin flip, don’t affect future results. The mistaken belief that past results affect future results is known as “the Gambler’s Fallacy” (AKA the Fallacy of the Maturity of Chances, or the Monte Carlo Fallacy).

Blog Posts tagged with "Logic and Reason"

What is the Difference Between Logic and Reason?

Reason and logic are two closely related forms of thinking involving the comparison of terms that can be studied in terms of mathematics or philosophy and can be considered together as well as apart.

The Spheres of Human Understanding

All knowledge, all human understanding, can be said to be of four types: physical (empirical), logical (reason), ethical (philosophy in-action), and metaphysical (pure philosophy).

Giving Names to Concepts

We discuss “giving names to concepts” (defining terms), identifying with terms, be identified by terms, and the implications of this.

What is an Alternative Fact?

Alternative facts describe inconsistent sets of information submitted as plausible evidence for competing sides of a case/debate/argument.

What is Reason?

Reason is the application of “pure logic”, empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).

Hume’s Fork Explained

“Hume’s fork” describes how we refer to Kant’s critique of Hume, who separated knowledge into two types: facts based on ideas and facts based on experience.

The Branches of Philosophy Overview

The major branches of philosophy are [roughly], metaphysics (what is), epistemology (what we can know), logic and reason, ethics and morality, and aesthetics (beauty and art).

Book Reviews tagged with "Logic and Reason"