## You Can’t Prove a Negative Myth

The saying “you can’t prove a negative” isn’t accurate. Proving negatives is a foundational aspect of logic (ex. the law of contradiction).

Reason and logic are two closely related forms of thinking involving the comparison of terms which can be studied in terms of mathematics or philosophy and can be considered together as well as apart.

- There are
**terms**or**concepts**we**conceptualize**by rationalizing or observing (by comparing attributes); like Socrates, men, or mortality. - There are
**logical****judgements**(**propositions**) we get by comparing terms; like Socrates is a man, and all men are mortal. <— Logic - Then there are
**reasoned****inferences**we get by comparing judgements and propositions and considering their implications; like since Socrates is a man and since all men are mortal, therefore Socrates is mortal. <—Reason

Or more poetically:

**Reason**is the application of “pure logic,” empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).**Enlightenment**is simply the natural conclusions to which reason leads.

Enlightenment, in these terms, the “ends” of using logic and reason to shed light on that which we would not otherwise know. The change between not knowing and knowing.

The saying “you can’t prove a negative” isn’t accurate. Proving negatives is a foundational aspect of logic (ex. the law of contradiction).

Straight lines and perfect circles don’t exist in reality, they are mathematical abstractions.

The term “computer” used to refer to humans who did computations (“computer” used to be a job description, not a machine).

Life is all about “trade-offs,” and almost everything in life is a trade-off. If one thing increases, another must decrease.

There are different types of capital, value, commodities, and markets including natural, human, social, manufactured, and financial.

After reading David Hume, Immanuel Kant avoided social engagements for decade while fusing Hume’s ideas with his own, the result was Kant’s, a Critique of Pure Reason.

Everything is either true or not true, but not everything that is true can be proven true, and not everything false can be proven false.

Bayes’ theorem is a probability theory used to calculate the likelihood of an event being true or not true based on conditions related to the event. (i.e. an equation used for calculating conditional probabilities).

Correlation does not imply causation, but it can indicate it. The more correlating factors between events, the more likely there is a causal relationship.

Past results of random independent events, like a coin flip, don’t affect future results. The mistaken belief that past results affect future results is known as “the Gambler’s Fallacy” (AKA the Fallacy of the Maturity of Chances, or the Monte Carlo Fallacy).

In simple terms, analysis examines a system by dividing a whole into its parts, and synthesis examines a system by combining and comparing parts.

We explain inductive reasoning, a bottom-up reasoning method that reasons by consistency, comparing particulars and probabilities to find likely truths.

A truth-value is a label that is given to a statement (a proposition) that denotes the relation of the statement to truth.

We present a system of “logical, epistemological, and ontological categories of being and knowledge” (categories to place all empirical and rational concepts into).

We explain the a priori-a posteriori distinction, analytic-synthetic distinction, necessary-contingent distinction and other logic-based terms.

We explain and compare the different types of reasoning methods including deductive, inductive, abductive, analogical, and fallacious reasoning.

We present a basic theory of human knowledge to help illustrate some essentials of “what we can know” and “how we can know it.”

Reason and logic are two closely related forms of thinking involving the comparison of terms that can be studied in terms of mathematics or philosophy and can be considered together as well as apart.

We discuss theories that deal with the nature of abstractions and contradictions including, Dialectics and the Golden Mean theory, and offer a “synthesis” of these theories.

All knowledge, all human understanding, can be said to be of four types: physical (empirical), logical (reason), ethical (philosophy in-action), and metaphysical (pure philosophy).

We discuss “giving names to concepts” (defining terms), identifying with terms, be identified by terms, and the implications of this.

Alternative facts describe inconsistent sets of information submitted as plausible evidence for competing sides of a case/debate/argument.

Reason is the application of “pure logic”, empirical evidence, experiment, and skepticism to find truths, facts, and theories (AKA “critical thinking”).

“Hume’s fork” describes how we refer to Kant’s critique of Hume, who separated knowledge into two types: facts based on ideas and facts based on experience.

The major branches of philosophy can be denoted as: metaphysics (what is), epistemology (what we can know), logic and reason, ethics and morality, and aesthetics (beauty and art).

Conspiracy theories are sets of one more speculative hypotheses, backed by fallacious reasoning, that suppose a conspiracy.

We explain Deductive Logic by St. George William Joseph Stock, a book that explains how to use deductive logic and reason in simple terms.